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Author Guidelines

 Manuscript Preparation

1. General Requirements

  • The manuscript must be double-spaced in Times New Roman font (size 12). All pages should be numbered consecutively in the down right hand corner, beginning with the title page.
  • The lines on all pages, including those pages for references and figure legends, must be numbered consecutively in the left margin, beginning with number one at the top of the title page. A 2.5 cm margin on both sides of the page is desirable.
  • Weights and measures must be expressed in the SI unit (metric) system and temperatures in the Celsius (centigrade) scale.
  • Tables, single-spaced, should be as few and as simple as is feasible. Each table should be on a separate sheet.
  • The legends for figures should be typed on a separate sheet. Photographs should be carefully prepared so that a clear image can be printed.
  • Manuscripts will be edited in the order received, and accepted papers will be published in the order submitted if at all possible.
  • Authors whose native language is not English are strongly encouraged to have their manuscripts proofread prior to submission.
  • Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose a conflict of interest.

Manuscript preparation is different according to the publication type, including Original Articles, Reviews, Technical Notes, Editorials, Book Reviews, and Correspondence. Other types may also be negotiated with the editorial board of TERNAK TROPIKA.


2. Original Articles
Original Articles are reports of basic investigations. Although there is no limitation on the length of the manuscripts, the editorial board may abridge excessive illustrations and large tables. The manuscript for an Original Article should be organized in the following sequence:

1. Title page

2. Abstract

3. Keywords

4. Introduction

5. Materials and Methods

6. Results and Discussion

7. Conclussion

8. Acknowledgments (optional)

9. References

1. Title Page

The following items should be included on the title page: (a) the title of the manuscript, (b) author list, (c) each author’s affiliation and e-mail, (d) the name, e-mail, and telephone number of the corresponding author, (e) when applicable, the source of any research funding and a list of where and when the study has been presented in part elsewhere, and (f) a running title of fewer than 45 characters.

The title of the manuscript should be typed in bold-faced print using both upper and lower case letters and set in the center of the page. Although the title should be as brief as possible, it is recommended to include the animal species involved in the research when applicable. Abbreviations are not permitted in the title.

Full names of all authors should be provided with the family name in italics. Indications of professorial rank or other professional titles should not be used. Naming an author on a paper implies that the person named is aware of the research reported and agrees with and accepts responsibility for any results or conclusions reported.

The address of the institution where the research was conducted should include the name of the institution, city, zip code, and country. If the affiliation is different from the first author, the authors should be marked “1,” “2,” “3,” and so forth in Arabic numerals, which should appear in superscript at the top right-hand corner of the author’s name and at the beginning of each affiliation.

2. Abstract

A structured abstract is required for original articles and an unstructured one for reviews papers.

The abstract, consisting of no more than 300 words, appears on a separate page following the title page. The abstract should summarize pertinent results in a brief but understandable form. A structured abstract should contain Objective (purpose/background), Methods, Results, and Conclusion sections. An unstructured abstract should be one paragraph without sections. References should never be cited in the abstract. Abbreviations that appear in the abstract that are not included in the standard abbreviation must be defined before they are first used.

3. Keywords

At the end of the abstract, up to six keywords that best describe the nature of the research should be listed. The term "Keywords" should appear in bold followed by a colon. The first letter of each keyword is capitalized and keywords are separated by semicolon. Keywords should include the animal species, variables tested, and the major response criteria. Keywords must be selected from the CAB Thesaurus (available from

4. Heading

The article’s major headings (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion Conclussions, and References) appear in roman bold-faced type.

First subheadings appear at the left margin on a separate line in bold-faced print, are not followed by punctuation, and only the first word is capitalized. First subheadings are used when subsections consist of several paragraphs.
Second subheadings appear at the beginning of the first line of a paragraph. They are italicized and do not require labeling (a, b, c, etc.).

Materials and Methods

Animals, experimental design, and diet

5. Introduction

The introduction starts on a new page following the abstract. The introduction briefly justifies the research and specifies the hypotheses to be tested. Extensive discussion of relevant literature should be included in the discussion of results, not in the introduction. To minimize length and avoid redundancy, generally no more than three references should be cited to support a specific concept.

6. Materials and Method

  • All animal experiments should be reviewed by IACUC for the care and use of animals. If specimens from human subjects were used in research, the authors must certify that the approval of the research from an appropriate IRB was obtained. The manuscript must include a statement of IACUC or IRB compliance or exemption in this section.
  • A clear description or original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures used in the experiment. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Diets, animals (breed, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions [i.e., with or without restriction of feed and/or water]), surgical techniques, measurements, and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Brand names and company names and locations for all substances and equipment referred to in the text should be included in parentheses within the text, not in footnotes.

Statistics: Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical methods to analyze and interpret biological data is not acceptable. Consultation with a statistician is recommended. Statistical methods commonly used in the area of animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions.

7. Results and Discussion

Results should be presented in tabular form when feasible. The text should explain or elaborate on the tabular data, but numbers should not be repeated extensively within the text. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached, should be presented to allow the readers to interpret the results of the experiment. The discussion may be combined with the results in one section if desired.

The discussion, whether in a separate section or combined with the results, should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of biological mechanisms and should integrate with the research findings of other studies to provide the readers with a broad base for understanding whether the hypotheses tested were accepted or rejected.

8.   Conclussion

This section, consisting of no more than 100 words in one paragraph, follows the discussion and should explain in lay terms, without abbreviations, acronyms, or citations, what the findings of this research imply for animal production and/or biology. Though some speculation is permitted, this section should also caution the reader against overextrapolation of results. For manuscripts with direct applications, this section will consist of an interpretive summary.

9. Acknowledgements (Optional option)

10.  References

In the text, references should be cited with Arabic numerals in brackets, numbered in the order cited. In the references section, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text. The number of references is limited to 30 for Original Articles. All authors of a cited work should be listed if there are six or fewer authors. The first three authors should be listed followed by “et al.” if there are more than six authors. If a reference has a digital object identifier (DOI), it should be supplied. Non-published findings and personal communications should not be included in the list of references. Journals titles shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed ( A short list of journal title abbreviations is provided in Appendix 1. Sample references are given below. Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers(

Sample References

(Journal Articles)

  1. Seo D, M.S. Bhuiyan, H. Sultana, J.M. Heo and J.H Lee. 2016. Genetic diversity analysis of South and East Asian duck populations using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 29:471-8.
  2. Tizioto P.C., L.L Coutinho and G.B Mourão. 2016. Variation in myogenic differentiation 1 mRNA abundance is associated with beef tenderness in Nelore cattle. Anim Genet. Mar 30 [Epub].
  3. Krehbiel C.R., J.J. Cranston and M.P. McCurdy. 2006. An upper limit for caloric density of finishing diets. J Anim Sci. 84 Suppl:E34-49.
  4. Mahan D.C., E.M. Weave and L.E Russell. 1996. Improved postweaning pig performance by adding NaCl or HCl to diets containing animal plasma [abstract]. J Anim Sci. 74(Suppl 1):58.

 (Books and Book Chapters)

  1. Field T.G and R.E Taylor. 2015. Scientific farm animal production: an introduction to animal science. 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall
  2. Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine, National Research Council. 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
  3. Preston N.D., P. Daszak and R.R. Colwell. 2013. The human environment interface: applying ecosystem concepts to health. In: Mackenzie JS, Jeggo M, Daszak P, Richt JA, editors. One health: the human-animal-environment interfaces in emerging infectious diseases. New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 83-100.

 (Web sites)

  1. Raosoft. 2004. Sample size calculator [Internet]. Raosoft Inc.[cited 2016 Apr 1]. Available from:
  2. Anonymous. 2016. Metagenomics:sequences from the environment [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biomedical Information. [cited 2016 Feb 20]. Available from:

(Dissertations and Theses)
  1. Ha J.K. 1981. Studies on beneficial and adverse effects of dietary buffers for lambs [dissertation]. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University
  2. Yoon C.H. 1991. Effects of lysine and sodium levels on growth performance, acid-base balance and lysine-arginine antagonism in broiler chicks [master's thesis]. Seoul, KR: Seoul National University

 (Conference Papers)

  1. Moss K.J and L. Greening. 2009. The effect of age and gender on the time taken for horses to learn an operant task. In: Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2009; 2009 Mar 30-Apr 1; Southport, UK. Penicuik, UK: British Society of Animal Science: p. 1.
  2. Patrias K. 2003. Computer-compatible writing and editing. Interacting with the digital environment: modern scientific publishing. 46th Annual Meeting of the Council of Science Editors: May 3-6; Pittsburgh, PA.

(Research Reports)

  1. Page E and J. M. Harney. 2001. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Report No.: HETA2000-0139-2824.


Tables are used to present numerical data in a self-explanatory manner. They should be intelligible without consulting the text and should not duplicate data already given in the text or in illustrations. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. Tables should be double-spaced with each table on a separate sheet. Tables should appear immediately after the references. The tables should be paginated in series with the text.

All tables should be cited in the text. Arabic numerals are used to number tables. The title of the table continues on the same line with only the first letter capitalized. A period should not appear at the end of the title. Column headings should have the first letter of each word capitalized while the names of variables are to be typed with only the first letter capitalized (i.e., Average daily gain).

For numerals less than 1, a zero should be inserted to the left of the decimal point, and if possible, columns should be center- aligned. If there are no data for a particular entry, a hyphen should be inserted. If an explanation is necessary, an abbreviation can be used in the body of the table (e.g., ND) and it should be explained clearly in the footnotes. References to footnotes in a table are to be specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lower case p to indicate probability values (i.e., p < 0.05).

Presentation of pooled standard errors, the general basis for statistical comparisons of means, is recommended when variance is homogeneous. These should be presented in a separate column or row. Standard errors can be attached to each mean by ± signs when variance or SE is heterogeneous (e.g., unbalanced experiments or unequal numbers of observations in treatment means). The pooled standard error is the preferred estimate of experimental error because presenting individual standard errors tends to clutter up the table.

For diet composition, major ingredient inclusion levels should be presented as a percentage of the total rather than in grams or kilograms of food.


Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript with each figure on a separate page. Figure legends should be typed (double spaced) on a separate page.

Figures should fit in one column (8 cm wide), or full-page width (17 cm wide). A minimum type size of 8 points (Times New Roman) is recommended so as to be readable in the final publication size.

For tables containing multiple lines, solid, long-dash, short-dash, and dotted lines should be used, while gray or shaded lines should be avoided. Lines with different symbols for the data points may also be used to distinguish curves. Unnecessary backgrounds and grid lines should be removed from graphs. Each axis should have a description and a unit.

For bar charts, different fill patterns may be used if needed (black, white, gray, and stripes). Curves and data points should be identified using the following symbols (●, ○, ■, □, ♦, ◊, ▲, △, +, and ×). Symbols should be defined in the figure legend or in a key on the figure.

The preferred file type for figures is JPEG, TIFF, or PPT. If figures are to be reproduced in grayscale (black and white), they should be submitted as such. If figures are to appear in color in the print journal, the files must be submitted in CMYK color (not RGB). The minimum resolution is 300 dpi for color and grayscale figures, and 600 dpi for line art.

Photomicrographs must have their unmagnified size designated either in the caption or with a scale bar on the figure. A legend should be prepared to provide sufficient information and all abbreviations, and the symbols used in the figure should be defined in the legend.


Use of Numbers

The following rules address the formatting of numbers:

  • Numbers one through nine should be spelled out and numerals be used for 10 and above.
  • Arabic numerals should be used with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3%, and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc.
  • Arabic numerals should be used to express times and dates: 08:00 h, 3 Sept. 1985, etc.
  • In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10, numerals should be used for all (i.e., 2 Holsteins, 6 Charolais, and 15 Friesians).
  • When writing a large number ending in several zeros that represents an approximation, a word should be used for part of the number (i.e., 1.8 million rather than 1,800,000).
  • When two numbers appear adjacent to each other, the first should be spelled out (i.e., ten 2-d-old chicks rather than 10 2-d-old chicks).
  • A sentence should not begin with a numeral. The number should be spelled out, and when possible, the sentence can be rearranged to eliminate lengthy sentence-initial numbers.
  • The 24-h clock system should be used: 09:30, 13:40, etc. Periods of time should be expressed in quantitative hours (e.g., 2 h 16 min). The terms hour (h), minute (min), second (s), and year (yr) should be abbreviated when used with a number in the text but spelled out when they are used alone.
  • A hyphen should not be used to indicate inclusiveness (e.g., 12 to 14 mg or wk 3 and 4, not 12-14 mg or wk 3-4).


Final Preparation for Publication

1. Manuscript Corrections

Before publication, the manuscript editor may correct the manuscript such that it meets the standard publication format. The author(s) must respond within 3 days when the manuscript editor contacts the author for revisions. If the response is delayed, the manuscript’s publication may be postponed.

2. Galley Proof

The author(s) will receive the final version of the manuscript as a PDF file. Upon receipt, within 2 days, the editorial office (or printing office) must be notified of any errors found in the file. No major changes including changes to the author list will be allowed at this stage. Any errors found after this time are the responsibility of the author(s) and will have to be corrected as an erratum.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Open Office, Microsoft Word, RTF, or Word Perfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher. 


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Author Fees

This journal charges the following author fees.

Article Submission: 100000.00 (IDR)

This journal charges the following author fees.

  • The publication charge is only applicable for Authors from Indonesia. 
  • The authors from country others than Indonesia still has free of charge to publish an article in this journal. 
  • The publication fee is started for the article that is being issued after January 2017.

If you do not have enough funds to pay such fees, you will have an opportunity to waive or to reduce each fee. in the condition you may contact to Administration:

If you do not have funds to pay such fees, you will have an opportunity to waive each fee. We do not want fees to prevent the publication of worthy work.